Wednesday, November 24, 2010

Concept And Phylosophy Of Silvicultural Multisystem


CONCEPT AND PHYLOSOPHY OF SILVICULTURAL MULTISYSTEM[1])

By :
Andry Indrawan[2])


Introduction
At present, the objectives of forest development are not only for yield sustainability (“Sustained Yield Principle”) but also for ecosystem sustainability (Sustained Forest Management), and it is expected that the forest development creates direct benefits in the form of wood and other forest products, as well as ecological benefits in the form of hydrology, orology and protection services toward natural environment.
 Ecosystems which need to be conserved in the area of forest territory are as follows:
1. Natural ecosystems, in the form of tropical rain forests, monsoon forests, swamp forest, peat swamp forests, heath forests and mangrove forests.
2. Artificial ecosystems in forest territory such as industrial plantation forest and people plantation forest.
    Forest ecosystem also functions as living space and food seeking area for people community around the forest (local people), habitat of various wild animals and plant species, biodiversity conservation medium, germ plasm conservation medium, hydro-orology service, and protection service for nature and environment.
    On the basis of Consensus Forest Land Uses – Provincial Spatial Plan (TGHK – RTRWP) which are integrated in harmonious manner (paduserasi), it can be shown that   size of forest area in Indonesia is 120.35 million ha (61 % of terrestrial land size) which on the basis of their function, the forest territory consist of : Production Forest 58.25 million ha, Convertible Production Forest 8.08 million ha, Protection Forest 33.52 million  ha and Conservation Forest 20.50 million ha. (Rusli, 2008)
     Number of HPH/IUPHHK HA (natural forest timber concession), up to June 2009, was  301 units with size of permit area of 31 133 992  ha.  Number of forest concessions (HPH) which proposed the endorsement of RKUPHHK-HA was as many as 210 Management Units (UM) and there had been endorsements of as many as 121 Management Units up to June 2009.  On the other hand, the number of plantation forests IUPHHK as of June 2009,  was 262 units  with permit area size of 11 457 241 ha (Dirjen BPK, 2009).
    Since the issuance of Forestry Minister Regulation Permenhut No. P.23/Menhut-II/2007 jo. Permenhut No. P.05//  Menhut II/2008 concerning procedure of request application for IUPHHK and People Plantation Forest (HTR) in plantation forest, as follow up action from government regulation PP No. 6 year 2007 jo. PP No. 3 year 2008, up to 17 june 2009, the issuance of IUPHHK-HTR (People Plantation Forest Concession)  by regent (District Chief) was as many as 8 (eight) units with area size of 15 305.95 ha.  And up to 17 June  2009 realization of reservation area for People Plantation Forest (HTR) was determined for 38 districts/municipalities which are scattered in 15 provinces with total area size of 251 018 ha (Dirjen BPK, 2009).
    Reformation euphoria caused degradation of forest resources. At present, the target of illegal logging is not only the production forest, but it has also entered the conservation areas (national park, protection forest, and other conservation areas).
    On the other hand, degradation, deforestation, and threats of forest conversion for various purposes (such as for mining, plantation, occupation by people community and splitting of governmental administrative regions) which occurs in fast pace in Indonesia, requires flexibility of management which can adjust to forest condition and to various demands toward the forest, and such management flexibility could be obtained among other things from the silvicultural system being used. Silvicultural system which is used in a particular IUPHHK area needs to be adjusted with habitat condition in the forest territory of the area, either in natural forest IUPHHK or in plantation forest IUPHHK.
    Considering that forest condition in most areas of IUPHHK are generally in the form of logged over areas, damaged / unproductive forest area, non forested area, while  in several places there are still primary forest areas, then for managing such heterogeneous forests, there is a need for more than one silvicultural systems (silvicultural multisystem). In relation with system of sustainable management for  production natural forest, within one unit of forest management, there is great possibility to apply more than one silvicultural system.
    Such condition is in conformity with government regulation Peraturan Pemerintah No 3/2008, article 38, verse 1 which reads that within production forest, utilization of wood forest products in Industrial Plantation Forest (in plantation forest) as explained in article 37 letter a, could be conducted with one or more silvicultural system.
    This phenomenon is supported also by forestry minister regulation Permenhut Number P30/Menhut-II/2005 concerning the Standard of Silvicultural System in Dry Land Natural Forest and / or Wet Land / Swamp Natural Forest, article 6 verse 2, which reads that considering the heterogeneous condition of production natural forest in KPHP or IUPHHK (timber forest concession),  then within one KPHP or IUPHHK  there could be more than one silvicultural systems, namely silvicultural system which is in conformity with characteristics of the forest resources and the environment. Forestry minister regulation Permenhut Number P30/Menhut-II/2005 is declared not valid anymore by  Forestry Minister regulation No. P11/Menhut II/ 2009 (see page 7 (seven) of this paper).
     Also, Forestry Minister Decree No. P.40 year 2007 explains that silvicultural system is adjusted with existing forest condition within the working area.
    However, in its implementation, the forestry minister regulation undergoes many constraints, mainly at technical, management and institutional level; and at implementation guidelines in the field. On the other hand, demand from manager of IUPHHK  to conduct silvicultural multisystem is very great. Those phenomena become the basis of the need for adjustments of silvicultural system on the basis of forest territory condition and local environment characteristics. Such system should be guided by principles of sustainable forest management, namely economically profitable, ecologically responsible, and socially conducive. Besides that, the system should be  realistic and be directed toward forest sustainability, and the technical implementation is sufficiently simple and allow effective supervision in the field. Besides that, in relation with extension of IUPHHK, the concession holders should not only give attention toward areas which have timber potency, but they should also be responsible for the whole area, including the areas which are categorized as non forest.
     Forest areas have undergone much pressure from various interests, such as from illegal logging, mining, plantation, people community occupation and other function change of forest land.
    Locations of IUPHHK in the watershed (DAS) ecosystem, either in upstream watershed ecosystem, middle stream watershed ecosystem, or downstream watershed ecosystem, in the production forest of IUPHHK have been fragmented into two or more types of land covers, namely: primary forest area, logged over forest area (LOA), sparse forest area (unproductive) of ex-illegal logging activity, sparse forest of ex-burnt area, scrub land and alang-alang field.
    The fragmented habitat of IUPHHK area requires change in paradigm toward better forest management by applying one or more silvicultural system (silvicultural multisystem)  within one area of IUPHHK.
    Considering the phenomena described above and for the purpose of increasing the productivity of production forest in the area of Business Permit for Wood Forest Product Utilization (IUPHHK),  then the efforts to redesign the management of forest area through application of silvicultural multisystem in accordance with characteristics of local forest territory, need to be given attention by foresters. Through this strategy, hopefully, the potency of production natural forest in the working area of IUPHHK could be maintained and improved so that the area could produce wood and other forest products in sustainable manner without neglecting the sustainability of ecological and social function.
    At present, the area of IUPHHK in natural forests have been fragmented into various land covers. Fragmentation of IUPHHK area in natural forests requires very much the management through silvicultural multisystem to replenish the forest functions, namely economic function in the form of production of wood and other forest products, ecological function (in the form of hydrology, orology, and natural environmental service) and socio-cultural function for people community around the forests.
    On the basis of model simulation, it could be proven among other things that the use of 3 silvicultural sytems (TPTI /Indonesian Selective Cutting and Planting, TPTII / Intensive TPTI and  THPB / Clear Cutting with Artifical Regeneration) shows  projection of total production of 378 %  greater than the use of combination of 2 systems (TPTI dan TPTII). Afterwards, the mixture of the 3 systems could absorb 257%  laborers and 554% NPV which are greater than the use of mixture of 2 systems (TPTI and TPTII).  From the aspect of policy, application of silvicultural multisystem requires law-regulations or technical guidelines which could explain and confirm or clarify criteria of boundary and direction of the use of silvicultural multisystem in appropriate sites or cluster of sites. Forestry Minister regulation Permenhut No. N0. P11/Menhut-II/2009 concerning silvicultural system has not been able to be used as basis for application of silvicultural  multisystem at field level because it could cause confusion or clash of 3 systems in the  utilization of cluster of logged over forest territories  (Suryanto, 2009).

    Silvicultural system:
    Silvicultural system or silvicultural techniques which have been practiced in the management of production natural forests (IUPHHK Hutan Alam) in Indonesia, at present, are silvicultural system of Indonesian Selective Cutting and Planting (TPTI), silvicultural system Strip Planting  Selective Cutting (TPTJ) and silvicultural system of Intensive Indonesian Selective Cutting and Planting (TPTII) with Intensive Silvicultural Technique (SILIN).
    On the other hand, silvicultural sytem which is applied in management of plantation forest at present is Clear Cutting with Artificial Regeneration (THPB).

    1.  Silvicultural System of Indonesian Selective Cutting (TPI) and Indonesian Selective Cutting and Planting (TPTI).
    Since the issuance of Government Regulation No. 21 year 1970 concerning  Right for Forest Utilization and Right for Forest Product Harvesting for the purpose of implementation of Law No. 5 year 1967 concerning Main Stipulations of Forestry,  Law No. 1 year 1967  concerning foreign capital investment and Law No 6 year 1968 concerning domestic capital investment, then the forest concessions (HPH) started to operate in Indonesia.
    Decree of Directorate General of Forestry No.  35/Kpts/DD/I/1972 was issued on 13 March 1972, concerning Indonesian Selective Cutting, Clear Cutting with Planting, Clear Cutting with Natural Regeneration and their guidelines for supervision.
    On 18 September 1989 there was issuance of Forestry Minister Decree Number 485/Kpts-II/1989 concerning silvicultural sytem of natural production forest in Indonesia. In the Minister Decree Number 485/1989, it was explained that Decree of Directorate General of Forestry Number 35/Kpts/Dj/I/1972 concerning Guidelines of Indonesian Selective Cutting, is still valid as long as is not against with this Decree. Forestry Minister Decree No. 485/1989 gave birth to Decree of Director General of Forest Utilization Number 564/Kpts/IV-BPHH/1989 concerning Guidelines of Indonesian Selective Cutting and Planting.
    From the results of report of data / information collection from TPI implementation in the year 1987, at several forest concessions (HPH) (Riau : PT. Silvasaki; Jambi: PT. Hatma Santi; West Kalimantan: PT. Kayu Lapis Indonesia, South Kalimantan: PT. Inhutani II and PT. Hutan Kintap; East Kalimantan: PT. Inhutani I, PT. ITCI and PT. BFI) which was conducted by Forestry Research and Development Agency (Ministry of Forestry), Faculty of Forestry (University of Gajah Mada and Institut Pertanian Bogor / IPB) where the author belongs to IPB team, it could be shown that (the data / information constitute materials for Discussion, which was led by Komar Sumarna who at that time was Director of Nature Conservation, Directorate General of PHPA, Forestry Ministry, to Improve TPI guidelines), in those forest concession areas (HPH) in the logged over forest area, the number of core trees per ha  with diameter of 20 cm or more, were sufficient, namely more than 25 trees per ha. Also the number of regeneration at pole, sapling and seedling were sufficient.
     Results of research which was conducted by the author at logged over forest in area of IUPHHK in Sumatra (forest concessions /HPH PT. Hugurya/Aceh, HPH PT. Pertisa /Riau), Kalimantan (HPH PT. INHUTANI II/ P. Laut /South Kalimantan, and PT. Ratah Timber/East Kalimantan)  showed that in Logged Over Area there were densities of core trees (trees which will form the main stand to be logged in the next rotation) which were sufficient, and the regeneration stages (seedling, sapling and poles)  were also sufficient, both in terms of densities (number of trees / ha) and in terms of their distribution (frequency).
    Description presented above concerning the sufficient number of core trees / ha and regeneration of commercial species, shows that sustainablity of forest products at the second and next rotation will be ensured.
    Silvicultural system of TPTI is the most suitable for ensuring the sustainability of natural forest ecosystem and yield sustainability with long term benefit through approriate cutting cycle. Cutting cycle in TPTI is 35 years with the assumption that the diameter increment is 1 (one) cm/year.

    2.   Silvicultural System of Strip Planting Selective Cutting (TPTJ).
    The sequence of enforcement and revocation of various Forestry Minister Decrees and Forestry Minister Regulations concerning Silvicultural System of TPTJ is regulated and described  by the following:
    a. Decree of Forestry Minister No. 435/KPTS II/1997 and Decree SK. Menhutbun. 625/Kpts-II/1998 dated 10 September 1998, concerning Silvicultural System of Strip Planting Selective Cutting (TPTJ)  in the management of production forest.
    b. Decree SK Menhutbun. 201/Kpts-II/1998 dated 27 February 1998, concerning the granting of Forest Concession Right with TPTJ  silvicultural system to PT. Sari Bumi Kusuma.
    c. Decree SK Menhutbun No. 15/Kpts/IV/1999, dated 18 January 1999 concerning the granting of Forest Concession Right with TPTJ silvicultural system to PT. Erna Juliawati.
    d. Revocation of TPTJ: Forestry Minister Decree Kepmenhut No. 10172/Kpts-II/2002 concerning change of  Kepmenhutbun  No. 309/kpts-II/1999.
    e. Forestry Minister Regulation No. P 30/ Menhut II/2005: Kepmenhut No. 10172/KPTS-II/2002 is declared not valid anymore.
    f. Forestry Minister Regulation No. P11/Menhut II/2009 : Forestry Minister Regulation No. P 30/ Menhut II/2005 is declared not valid anymore, which implies that Forestry Minister Decree No. 10172/KPTS-II/2002  will be enforced again in confomity with item sub d. which declares that TPTJ has been revoked.
    g. Forestry Minister Regulation P11/Menhut II/2009 is confusing because it still  enforces the validity of TPTJ as one of the silvicultural system which will be used and against the Forestry Minister Decree No. 10172/Kpts-II/2002 and does not  include silvicultural system of Intensive Indonesian Selective Cutting and Planting (TPTII) with Intensive silvicultural technique (SILIN), as one of the silvicultural system  which will be made as reference.

    Strip planting Selective Cutting (TPTJ) is a silvicultural system with the following description:
    a. Strip Planting Silvicultural System (TPTJ) is silvicultural system with preparatory cutting by cutting trees in the Logged Over Area of TPTI, and is conducted by selective cutting with diameter limit of ≥ 40 cm followed with construction of clean strip (stripping), with strip width of 3 (three) meters and gross strip (conservation strip) with width of 22 m. In the axis of the clean strip there is planting of commercial tree species. With planting distance of 5 m within the axis of the clean strip, then the planting distance of the whole area become 5 x 25 m.
    b. Procurement of planting stocks could originate from seeds (seeds and uprooted wildlings), and from cuttings, including shoot cuttings from Dipterocarpaceae family of tree species and stem cutting of sungkai (Peronema canestens).

    3.  Silvicultural System of Intensive Indonesian Selective Cutting and Planting (TPTII) with Intensive Silvicultural Technique (SILIN).
    Decree of Directorate General of Forestry Production Development No 77/VI-BPHA/2005 dated 3 May 2005, declared that the  holders of IUPHHK  in natural forests are the model of silvicultural system of TPTII (Intensive Indonesian Selective Cutting and Planting) at 6 (six) IUPHHK namely PT Sari Bumi Kusuma, PT Erna Djuliawati and PT. Sarpatim (Kalteng); PT. Suka Jaya Makmur (West Kalimantan); PT. Balikpapan Forest Industry and  PT. Ikani (East Kalimantan).
    Decree of Directorate General of Forestry Production Development No. SK. 41/VI-BPHA/2007 dated 10 April 2007 concerning the appointment of holders of Business Permit for Wood Forest Product Utilization as models for development of  Intensive Indonesian Selective Cutting and Planting (TPTII) appointed 25 permit holders of Business Permit for Wood Forest Product Utilization (IUPHHK) in natural forests which included  8 (eight) IUPHHK in East Kalimantan, 8 (eight) IUPHHK in Central Kalimantan, 1 (one) IUPHHK in West Kalimantan, 1 (one) IUPHHK in West Sumatra, 1 (one) IUPHHK in Riau,  2 (two) IUPHHK in Papua, 3 (three) IUPHHK in West Papua, and 1(one) IUPHHK in North Maluku.
    System of TPTII (SILIN) is not a regime or silvicultural system, but it constitutes a silvicultural technique which requires and obliges the existence of enrichment planting in strips in post logging area without considering whether the seedling regeneration is sufficient or not (Sukotjo, 2009).
    The weakness of TPTII Silvicultural System (SILIN), is that  it is  executed in Logged Over Area (LOA) of  TPTI without considering the cutting rotation (cutting cycle) demanded / required in guidelines of TPTI. Cutting cycle in TPTI is 35 years. SILIN allows cutting below 35 years by decreasing  the diameter limit which are allowed to be cut to ≥ 40 cm which is executed in preparatory cutting in logged over area.
    The superiority of TPTII Silvicultural System (SILIN), is the Enrichment Planting with superior species, which is obliged to be conducted right after the execution of logging, namely in Logged Over Areas (LOA) of 0 year old (ET+0), without considering whether the seedling regeneration is sufficient or not so that it is easily controlled.
    On the other hand, in TPTI Silvicultural System, enrichment planting, it is conducted in Logged Over Areas (LOA) which is 3 years old (ET+3)  in location of logged over areas whose seedling regeneration are lacking ( distribution / frequency < 40%), and it is difficult to be controlled.
      TPTII Silvicultural System (SILIN), is conducted through genetical engineering, environmental engineering and protection of plants from pest and diseases, and therefore, it is expected to be able to fulfill the need for commercial timber species in the future, from natural forest, specifically for tree species of family Dipterocarpaceae.
     TPTII Silvicultural System (SILIN), is silvicultural technique which constitutes the development of system of Strip Planting Selective Cutting (TPTJ) and Enrichment Planting of TPTI system.
    The technique comprise preparatory cutting in the whole block (logging compartments) in accordance with Annual Working Plan (RKT) of the current year.  Logging is conducted with diameter limit of 40 cm up.  In the Logged Over Area (LOA) from preparatory cutting, results of preparatory cutting are followed with construction of clean strip, cutting of clean strip as wide as 3 meters  and gross strip which is left in the form of LOA vegetation resulting from preparatory cutting with width of 17 m. In the axis of clean strip, there is activity of enrichment planting with superior species with planting distance (spacing) of 21/2 m, so that planting spacing of the area become 21/2  x 20 m2. (Direktorat Jenderal Bina Produksi Kehutanan, 2005).
    Superior tree species (target species) of family Dipterocarpaceae which are recommended and constitute the choice to be planted in the TPTII (SILIN) system are tree species resulting from species trial.  Tree species resulting from species trial with silvicultural technique are as follows: Shorea leprosula, S. parvifolia, S. johorensis, S. smithiana, S. ovalis, S. platyclados, S. selanica, S. macrophylla, S. javanica, and Dryobalanops sp. (Sukotjo, Subiakto and Warsito, 2005).
    Economic rotation of superior species (target species) is 30 years.

    4.  Silvicultural System  of Clear Cutting with Artifical Regeneration (THPB)
    On 18 September 1989, there was issuance of Forestry Minister Decree Number 485/Kpts-II/1989 concerning silvicultural system for management of natural production forest in Indonesia, where the management of Production Forest in Indonesia could be conducted with the following silvicultural systems:
    1.  Indonesian Selective Cutting and Planting (TPTI)
    2.  Clear Cutting with Natural Regeneration (THPA)
    3.  Clear Cutting with Artifical Regeneration (THPB)
    In the Minister Decree Number 485/1989 as mentioned above, it is explained that  Decree of Director General of Forestry Number 35/Kpts/Dj/I/1972 is still valid as long as it is not against with this decree.
    Workshop of Development of Timber Estate which was conducted on 29 – 31 March 1984, in Faculty of Forestry (IPB, Bogor) with  motto of Planting today, harvesting tomorrow constituted the beginning of development of Industrial Plantation Forestbecause the Indonesian translation of Timber Estateis Hutan Tanaman Industri (Industrial Plantation Forest)” as proposed in the workshop.
    The workshop of Development of Timber Estate gave birth to Forestry Minister Decree Surat Keputusan Menteri Kehutanan No. 142/Kpts-II/1984 dated 17 July 1984, concerning Development of Industrial Plantation Forest (HTI), Year 1984/1985  with Guarantee Fund for Reforestation and Forest Regeneration.
    Development of Industrial Plantation Forest (HTI) was started with the issuance  of Government Regulation PP No. 7 year 1990 concerning Utilization Right of Industrial Plantation Forest (HPHTI).
    The objectives of HTI development in Government Regulation PP No. 6 Year 1999  are for improving forest potency which has been damaged, and for fulfilling the  need for industrial raw materials, so that development of HTI is equal with rehabilitating critical production forest territory which is not productive.
    In the Government Regulation PP No. 34 Year 2002 concerning Forest Structuring and Compilation of Plan for Forest Management, Forest Utilization, and Use of Forest Territory, it is explained that the targets of plantation forest are bare land, alang-alang field and sparse forests ( with potency less than 20 m3).
    Clear Cutting with Artificial Regeneration (THPB) with agroforestry pattern  could be conducted by planting main crops together with agricultural crops or plantation crops, such as cacao planting under forest stand in Africa and cardamom plants under forest stand in RRC (Kartawinata, 1998)
    In Indonesia, land rehabilitation using agroforestry system with cacao plant is conducted around Lore Lindu National Park and around Rawa Aopa National Park (Hatfindo Prima, 2005)
    Up to now, the management of production forest in Indonesia is overseen by  Directorate General of Forestry Production Development (Dirjen BPK) which in the year 2010 becomes Directorate General of Forestry Business Development  which oversee Directorate of Natural Forest Development Guidance ( which oversee IUPHHK HA) which in the year 2010 becomes Directorate of Natural Forest Business Development and Directorate of Plantation Forest Development (which oversee IUPHHK HT/HTI) which in the year 2010 becomes Directorate of Plantation Forest Business Development.
    Solution for increasing the production of wood and other forest products is the application of multi business with application of silvicultural multisystem.
    Silvicultural systems which are recommended to be used in the application of silvicultural multisystem in production  forest territory in the area of IUPHHK are TPTI, TPTII/Silin, THPB, and THPB with Agroforestry pattern.

    Ecosystem Restoration
    Ecosystem restoration is effort to restore biotic elements (flora and fauna) and abiotic elements (soil, climate, and topography) in the territory of production forest so that biological balance is achieved (Forestry Minister Regulation Peraturan Menteri Kehutanan, No. P.18//Menhut- II/2004; Peraturan Menteri Kehutanan Nomor SK 159/Menhut-II/2004).
    As a result of tropical forest degradation, both in upstream and downstream area of watershed, the forest areas become not productive, either in terms of ecology, economy or social. Area of primary forests turn into logged over area of TPTI,  ex-burnt forest areas, illegally logged over forest area, and ex-cultivated farmland forest area. Those areas could be in the form of secondary forest, scrub land, and alang-alang field which are formed in accordance with level and frequency of degradation of the natural forest (usually in the form of primary forest).  In those areas there are process of secondary succession which go toward dynamic natural balance (climax forest) if there is no more disturbance. Vegetations  being formed after forest degradation constitute a reflection of the habitat condition.
    Choice of tree species which is in accordance with ecology of the degraded land should be conducted properly for the success  of ecosystem restoration. Local native species is the best to be planted in a particular location. On the other hand, if the native species is not suitable for economic development of  the region, there can be introduction of exotic species, either from outside the island, or outside the region which is ecologically similar with the area to be restored.
    In the logged over forest area, TPTI is ecologically the most suitable to be applied.  TPTI follow natural principles by cutting commercial tree species with diameter limit of 50 cm up in production forest and 60 cm up in limited production forest.  Results of TPI logging are spread in the form of gaps in logged over areas depending on density of  commercial tree species in the logged over areas.
    Silvicultural system of TPTI is the most suitable for ensuring the sustainability of forest benefits, either directly or indirectly through cutting cycle and nutrient cycle. Logged over forest area is treated as a forest ecosystem. In areas whose natural regeneration is lacking (frequency value of seedling natural regeneration ≤ 40%) there should be activity of enrichment planting. On the other hand, in areas whose natural regeneration is sufficient (frequency value of seedlling natural regeneration ≥ 40%)  there should be activities of crown liberation, either of vertical liberation or horizontal liberation. Enrichment planting should be matched with the tree species being logged, namely by using selected tree species from family Dipterocarpaceae (Shorea spp, Dipterocaprus, spp, Dryobalanops spp, Hopea spp , Vatica spp etc.) or tree species of non Dipterocarpaceae which are semi-tolerant (Scyphyt), namely those which require  shade when young but require full sun light when they are adult.
    Choice of tree species for enrichment planting which should conform with ecological condition of the area to be planted, particularly in relation with soil and light condition, is very influential for the success of enrichment planting which will be conducted. In open areas in the form of scrub land, and alang-alang field, choice of tree species are those tree species which are intolerant, which require full sunlight (heliophyte tree species) such as jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba / Anthocephalus chinensis / Anthocephalus indicus), Macaranga spp, Trema spp, sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria), Acacia mangium, Eucalyptus spp, Tectona grandis etc.

    Definition of silvicultural system
     Silvicultural system is one of the important parts (sub system) of the management system of sustainable production forest management (PHPL), which can ensure sustainability of production, ecological service and socio-economic  positive impacts, as well as maintenance and improvement of forest territory productivity.
    Silvicultural systems could be classified as follows (Manan,1995):
    a. Polycyclic system: number of cutting (cutting cycle) is more than one time  during the rotation.
    b. Monocyclic system: number of cutting (cutting cycle) is only one within one rotation.
    In Indonesia, system of TPI and TPTI use Polycyclic system which has 2 times of cutting cycle within rotation of 70 years. On the other hand, system of THPA and THPB use Monocyclic system.

    Working definition of Silvicultural Multisystem:
     Silvicultural multisystem is system of sustainable production forest management which consist of two or more silvicultural systems which are applied within one forest concession (IUPHHK) and constitute multi-business activities with the purpose of : maintaining and increasing the production of wood and other forest products and maintaining the territory certainty of production forest (Indrawan, 2008).

    Locations of IUPHHK in the watershed (DAS) ecosystem, either in upstream watershed ecosystem, middle stream watershed ecosystem, or downstream watershed ecosystem, in the production forest of IUPHHK have been fragmented into two or more types of land covers, namely: primary forest area, logged over forest area (LOA), sparse forest area (unproductive) of ex-illegal logging activity, sparse forest of ex-burnt area, scrub land and alang-alang field.

    Closing Remarks
    In line with change in paradigm of forest management which demand benefit of  forest management which is focused not only on timber production, but also on providing benefit for environment conservation and improving social benefits for the community,   then the efficiency and effectiveness of forest management should be improved to get global acknowledgement.
    On the other hand, degradation, deforestation, and threats of forest conversion for various purposes (such as for mining, plantation, occupation by people community and splitting of governmental administrative regions) which occurs in fast pace in Indonesia, requires flexibility of management which can adjust to forest condition and to various demands toward the forest, and such management flexibility could be obtained among other things from the silvicultural system being used.
    National workshop on application of silvicultural multisystem in utilization of production of forest for improving productivity and security of forest territory has been conducted on 23 August 2008 in IPB International Convention Center.
    This national workshop for application of silvicultural multisystem in the utilization of production forest for improving the productivity and security of forest territory  constitutes a cooperation between Faculty of Forestry (IPB) and Directorate General of Forestry Production Development (Forestry Ministry).
    With this workshop, it is expected that: there is uniformity in vision and mission for  application of silvicutural multisystem in a unit of IUPHHK, there is joint commitment for handling problem of managing natural production forest in Indonesia, and there are  more holistic activities program which does not overlap each other in terms of authority in managing / utilizing production forest in Indonesia.
    The fragmented condition of habitat in area of IUPHHK demands change toward better paradigm of forest management by applying two or more silvicultural systems (silvicultural multisystem) in a particular area of IUPHHK.
    Developments of Natural Forest IUPHHK and Plantation Forest IUPHHK (HTI) with silvicultural monosystem have been conducted since the beginning of HPH (forest concession) in the year 1970 and since the start of HTI development  (1984) up to the  present time.
    Silvicultural monosystem is not suitable anymore with the existing condition and fact in the field.  In natural forests, primary forest and LOA in the area of IUPHHK and plantation forest (HTI) there are illegal logging and pressures for other uses of the forest land, such as for illegal mining, plantation and people community occupation. Areas of IUPHHK are degraded into unproductive secondary forest, scrub land and alang-alang field.
    Application of Silvicultural Multisystem (MSS) requires legal umbrella in the form of Forestry Minister Decree and Government Regulation concerning  application of silvicultural multisystem and formation of silvicultural multisystem IUPHHK.
    With the application of silvicultural multisystem, production of wood (timber) and other forest products could be maintained and  increased, profitable economically, responsible in relation with ecology and environment, and able to maintain certainty and security of forest territory. With such application, hopefully, efforts of forest management could be more prospective and therefore are able to enlarge employment opportunity, increase income and play and active role in revegetation activity for preventing global warming.

    REFERENCES
    Direktorat Jenderal Kehutanan. 1972. Surat Keputusan Direktur Jenderal Kehutanan No. 35/Kpts/DD/1972. tentang Tebang Pilih Indonesia, Tebang Habis dengan Permudaan Alam, Tebang Habis dengan Permudaan Buatan dan Pedoman Pengawasannya, Direktorat Jenderal Kehutanan, Jakarta.

    Direktorat Reboisasi dan Rehabilitasi. 1980. Pedoman Tebang Pilih Indonesia. Penentuan Sistem Silvikultur. Pelaksanaan dan Pengawasan. Direktorat Reboisasi dan Rehabilitasi, Jakarta.

    Direktorat Jenderal Pengusahaan Hutan. 1989. Keputusan Direktur Jenderal Pengusahaan Hutan No. 564/Kpts/IV-BPHH/1989. tentang Tebang Pilih Tanam Indonesia. Direktorat Jenderal Pengusahaan Hutan. Departemen Kehutanan, Jakarta.

    Direktorat Jenderal Pengusahaan Hutan. 1993. Pedoman Pelaksanaan Uji Coba Tebang Jalur Tanam Indonesia (TJTI). Direktorat Jenderal Pengusahaan Hutan. Jakarta.

    Direktorat Jenderal Bina Produksi Kehutanan. 2005. Keputusan Direktur Jenderal Pengusahaan Hutan. No. SK. 226/VI/BPHA/2005 tentang Pedoman Tebang Pilih Tanam Indonesia Intensif (Silin). Departemen Kehutanan. Jakarta.

    Direktorat Jenderal Bina Produksi Kehutanan. 2009. Data Release Kehutanan. Triwulan II. Juli 2009.

    Indrawan, A. 2008. Sejarah Perkembangan Sistem Silvikultur di Indonesia. Prosiding Lokakarya Nasional Penerapan Multisistem Silvikultur Pada Pengusahaan Hutan Produksi Dalam Rangka Peningkatan Produktifitas Dan Pemantapan Kawasan Hutan. Kerjasama antara Fakultas Kehutanan Insitut Pertanian Bogor dengan Direktorat Jenderal Bina Produksi Kehutanan, Departemen Kehutanan. Bogor.

    PT Hatfindo Prima. 2005. Forest Resources Management for Carbon Sequestration Projects (FORMACS).  Care International Indonesia.  Jakarta.

    Manan, S. 1995. Pelaksanaan Sistem Sillvikultur Tebang Jalur Tanam Indonesia (TJTI) ditinjau dari aspek keanekaragaman Hayati dan Erosi Tanah. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan dan Konservasi Alam. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan. Departemen Kehutanan. Jakarta.

    Rusli, Y. 2008. Kondisi Hutan Produksi Saat Ini. Prosiding Lokakarya Nasional Penerapan Multisistem Silvikultur Pada Pengusahaan Hutan Produksi Dalam Rangka Peningkatan Produktifitas Dan Pemantapan Kawasan Hutan. Kerjasama antara Fakultas Kehutanan Insitut Pertanian Bogor dengan Direktorat Jenderal Bina Produksi Kehutanan, Departemen Kehutanan. Bogor.

    Soekotjo, A. Subiakto dan S. Warsito 2005. Project Completion Report ITTO. PD 41. Faculty of Forestry. Gajah Mada University. Yogyakarta. 

    Suryanto, 2009. Model dan Simulasi dalam Pengambilan Keputusan Sistem Silvikultur dan Aspek Kebijakannya. Paper dibawakan pada Seminar Gelar Teknologi Kehutanan. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, 19 Nov  2009.



    [1])Presented during Workshop of Silvicultural Multisystem. Optimization of Production Forest Territory through Silvicultural Multisystem.  Cooperation Between Great Agency for Dipterocarps Research ( Forestry Research and Development Agency, Ministry of Forestry) and Agency For Monitoring of Production Forest Utilization, Region X (Directorate General of Forestry Bussiness Development, Ministry of Forestry).
       Pontianak , 4 November 2010.
    [2]) Professor, Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, IPB

    3 comments:

    irwahyudimp said...

    Multiple silvicultural system is the good ide of Prof. Andry Indrawan. This sistem very suitable on the tropical forest, specially on the degraded Indonesian forest. We are very agree. Thanks.

    Dr. Wahyudi

    Andry Indrawan said...

    Terima Kasih

    Anonymous said...

    Wildlife habitat design pa is becoming a very important industry. Glad to see such an interest!

    Post a Comment