Sunday, May 29, 2011

Management Of Sustainable Production Forest In Indonesia With Application Of Silvicultural Multisystem


By :
 Andry Indrawan [2])

Forest constitutes one of the natural resources which have important significance for human life. Forest with various functions and benefits provide very large influence, either directly or indirectly toward aspects of ecology, economy, social and culture. In line with the progress of science and knowledge, and the increase of human population, there is also increase in human needs. This phenomenon creates an impact in the form of increasing human dependence toward forestry sector, which will ecologically influence forest condition. Therefore, there is a need for concept of sustainable forest management, which in its development could increase the economic value of forest, while still maintaining the ecological function.
According to the experience of forest management which has been ongoing, the forest management activities have increased the role of forestry sector in the nation’s economy. However, on the other hand, those activities have created damage on the forest resources themselves.
Up to now, the role of forest  tends to be viewed in terms as producer of commodity, mainly timber, so that the forest  become the object of uncontrolled  competition  by various parties for various interests, so that this phenomenon will ultimately threaten the existence and sustainability of the forest. Misperception which views the forest only from economic point of view, constitutes a fatal mistake, because the largest benefit of the forest is derived from non timber products, in the form of ecological benefits.
According to IPB research results (1999) in Forestry Ministry (2001), the values of forest benefits in the form of direct values (timber, non timber) reached only 4.5%, whereas the rest of the benefits constitute the existence values (habitat, flora, fauna, life supporting system) and ecological benefit. This implies that utilization of production forest territory for more than 32  years, only produce the value of forest benefit as much as maximally 4.5% and has eliminated other benefit by as much as 95%.
At present, the area of IUPHHK (forest concession) of natural forests have been fragmented into various land covers. Fragmentation of IUPHHK (forest concession) of natural forest requires management through Silvicultural Multisystem to recover the forest function, either the economic function in the form of timber and other forest products, or ecological function in the form of functions for hydrology, orology and natural environment protection, and socio-cultural needs of people community around the forests.
In relation with location of IUPHHK (forest concession) in Watershed (DAS) ecosystem, either the in upstream, midstream and downstream area, the areas of production forest in IUPHHK have been fragmented into two or more types of land cover, namely: primary forest area, logged over forest area (LOA), sparse forest area (unproductive) which constitutes  former illegal logging areas, sparse forest area which constitutes ex-burnt area, scrub and bush land,  and alang-alang field.
The fragmented habitat of IUPHHK areas demand change of paradigm for better forest management by applying one or more silvicultural systems (Silvicultural Multisystem) within one area of IUPHHK. Legality in the application of silvicultural multisystem in forest territory refers to Government Regulation No. 3/2008, article 38 verse 1, and Forestry Minister Regulation P.11/Menhut II/2009.