MANAGEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION FOREST IN INDONESIA
WITH APPLICATION OF SILVICULTURAL MULTISYSTEM )
Andry Indrawan )
Forest constitutes one of the natural resources which have important significance for human life. Forest with various functions and benefits provide very large influence, either directly or indirectly toward aspects of ecology, economy, social and culture. In line with the progress of science and knowledge, and the increase of human population, there is also increase in human needs. This phenomenon creates an impact in the form of increasing human dependence toward forestry sector, which will ecologically influence forest condition. Therefore, there is a need for concept of sustainable forest management, which in its development could increase the economic value of forest, while still maintaining the ecological function.
According to the experience of forest management which has been ongoing, the forest management activities have increased the role of forestry sector in the nation’s economy. However, on the other hand, those activities have created damage on the forest resources themselves.
Up to now, the role of forest tends to be viewed in terms as producer of commodity, mainly timber, so that the forest become the object of uncontrolled competition by various parties for various interests, so that this phenomenon will ultimately threaten the existence and sustainability of the forest. Misperception which views the forest only from economic point of view, constitutes a fatal mistake, because the largest benefit of the forest is derived from non timber products, in the form of ecological benefits.
According to IPB research results (1999) in Forestry Ministry (2001), the values of forest benefits in the form of direct values (timber, non timber) reached only 4.5%, whereas the rest of the benefits constitute the existence values (habitat, flora, fauna, life supporting system) and ecological benefit. This implies that utilization of production forest territory for more than 32 years, only produce the value of forest benefit as much as maximally 4.5% and has eliminated other benefit by as much as 95%.
At present, the area of IUPHHK (forest concession) of natural forests have been fragmented into various land covers. Fragmentation of IUPHHK (forest concession) of natural forest requires management through Silvicultural Multisystem to recover the forest function, either the economic function in the form of timber and other forest products, or ecological function in the form of functions for hydrology, orology and natural environment protection, and socio-cultural needs of people community around the forests.
In relation with location of IUPHHK (forest concession) in Watershed (DAS) ecosystem, either the in upstream, midstream and downstream area, the areas of production forest in IUPHHK have been fragmented into two or more types of land cover, namely: primary forest area, logged over forest area (LOA), sparse forest area (unproductive) which constitutes former illegal logging areas, sparse forest area which constitutes ex-burnt area, scrub and bush land, and alang-alang field.
The fragmented habitat of IUPHHK areas demand change of paradigm for better forest management by applying one or more silvicultural systems (Silvicultural Multisystem) within one area of IUPHHK. Legality in the application of silvicultural multisystem in forest territory refers to Government Regulation No. 3/2008, article 38 verse 1, and Forestry Minister Regulation P.11/Menhut II/2009.
System of Sustainable Management of Production Natural Forest (PHAPL) in Indonesia.
Forest management for ecosystem sustainability (Sustained Forest Management) which has been launched by Forestry Ministry in Indonesian natural forests, is expected very much to be manifested so that ecological and economic function of the forest could be achieved.
Several criteria of sustainable forest management which are explained in ITTO (International Tropical Timber Organization) document are among other things: guarantee of resources certainty, sustainability of timber production, conservation of flora and fauna, acceptable level of environmental impacts, socio-economic benefit, planning, and adaptation / adjustment on the basis of experience. Indonesia has established criteria and indicators of sustainable management of natural production forest through Decree of Indonesia Forestry Minister No 252/1993 (Manan,1993)
Technically, assessment of production forest management refers to criteria and indicators of Sustainable Management of Production Natural Forest of ITTO (ITTO, 1998) which are modified and expressed in Decree of Forestry Minister No 4795/KPTS II/2002, dated 3 June 2002 concerning Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Management of Natural Production Forest in Management Unit. On the other hand, the process and assessment of criteria and indicators are based on Regulation of Directorate General of Forestry Production Development (Peraturan Dirjen Bina Produksi Kehutanan) No. P.03/VI-BPHA/2007 concerning the change in Decree of Dirjen BPK No. 42/KPTS/VI-PHP/2003, concerning The Implementation of Assessment of IUPHHK performance in Natural Forest in Management Unit for the purpose of PHAPL (Sustainable Management of Production Natural Forest).
PHAPL is mandatory and should be applied in all Natural Forest Management Units.
Silvicultural system constitutes one of the important parts (sub system) of the system of Sustainable Management of Production Forests (PHPL), which could ensure sustainability of production, ecological function and positive socio-economic impacts (including maintenance and increase of forest territory productivity).
Silvicultural System and silvicultural techniques which are applied in management of natural production forest (IUPHHK HA) in Indonesia is Indonesian Silvicultural System of Selective Cutting and Planting (TPTI), Selective Cutting and Strip Planting (TPTJ) and Indonesian Silvicultural Technique of Selective Cutting and Intensive Planting (TPTII/Intensive Silvicultural Technique/Silin).
On the other hand, silvicultural system which is applied in management of plantation forest is silvicultural system of Clear Cutting with Artificial Regeneration (THPB).
Up to present, euphoria of reformation and illegal logging cause degradation in the ecosystem of forest resources. Euphoria of reformation has caused degradation of Indonesian natural forest, either of low land natural forest or of high elevation natural forest. Time has come that obliges Indonesian state to maintain and defend forest territory, maintain forest ecosystem sustainability and restore forest ecosystem which has been degraded, either in low land natural forests which constitute production forest; or those forests in upstream areas (upland) which constitute limited production forest, protection forest or protection area because those forests have function for hydrology, orology, and natural environment protection.
Areas of production forest in IUPHHK are fragmented for various interests and purposes, such as for mining, plantation, occupation by people community and administrative splitting of governmental jurisdiction, with rapid pace in Indonesia. Fragmentation of habitat in IUPHHK areas requires flexibility in management to enable adaptation with forest condition and various demand toward the forests.
Solution for increasing production of timber and other forest products, and for defending (maintaining) forest territory could be conducted by multi efforts by applying silvicultural multisystem.
Silvicultural Multisystem is system of sustainable management of production forest which consists of two or more silvicultural systems which are applied in a particular IUPHHK and constitutes multi efforts with the objective of : maintaining and increasing production of timber and other forest products, which enable the maintenance of territorial certainty of production forest (Indrawan, 2008).
The recommended silvicultural systems could be used in the application of silvicultural system in production forest territory in IUPHHK area, and consist of TPTI, TPTJ, TPTII/SILIN, THPB and THPB with agroforestry pattern.
Various locations of IUPHHK in watershed (DAS) ecosystem, which accommodate either the production forests in upstream, midstream and downstream areas, have been fragmented into two or more types of land cover, namely: primary forest area, logged over forest area (LOA), sparse forest area (unproductive) which constitute former illegal logging area, sparse forest area which constitute former burnt area, scrub / bush land and alang- alang field.
Ecosystem restoration is effort to recover biotic elements (flora and fauna) and abiotic elements (soil, climate and topography) in production forest territory, so that biological equilibrium is achieved (Forestry Minister Regulation, No. P.18/Menhut- II/2004).
Ecosystem restoration by using appropriate silvicultural system through the application of silvicultural multisystem, needs to be conducted in order that the forests are able to recover and retain their functions, both ecologically and economically.
In line with the change in paradigm of forest management which demand that benefit of forest management should be focused not only on timber production but also on creating benefits for environmental conservation and on enhancing social benefit for the community, then the efficiency and effectiveness of forest management should be increased to get global acknowledgement. On the other hand, deforestation and threat of forest conversion for various interests and purposes (such as for mining, plantation, people community occupation and administrative splitting of governmental jurisdiciton) occurs rapidly in Indonesia, and hence, there is a need for management flexibility which is able to adjust forest condition with various demand toward the forest. Such management flexibility is implemented through silvicultural system being used.
“National Workshop for Application of Silvicultural Multisystem in the Utilization of Production Forest for Enhancement of Productivity and Establishment of Forest Territory” has been conducted on 23 August 2008 with venue in IPB International Convention Center.
This national workshop on application of silvicultural multisystem in utilization of production forest for enhancement of productivity and establishment of forest territory constitutes a cooperation between Faculty of Forestry (IPB) and Direktorat Jenderal Bina Produksi Kehutanan, Departemen Kehutanan (Directorate General of Forestry Production Development, Ministry of Forestry).
In this workshop, it is hoped that there are uniformity of vision and mission in applying silvicultural multisystem in a unit of IUPHHK, existence of joint commitment in handling problem of natural production forest management in Indonesia, and existence of activity program which is more holistic and not overlapping in terms of authority of production forest management / utilization in Indonesia.
The condition of fragmented habitat in the areas of IUPHHK demands change in paradigm for better management of forest by applying two or more silvicultural systems (silvicultural multisystem) in a particular area of IUPHHK.
Development of natural forest IUPHHK and plantation forest IUPHHK (HTI / Industrial Plantation Forest) with Silvicultural Monosystem, has been conducted since the beginning of HPH (Forest Concession) operation (year 1970) and since the beginning of HTI development (year 1984), up to the present time.
Silvicultural Monosystem is not suitable anymore with actual field condition. In natural forests, primary forests and LOA in IUPHHK areas, there are illegal logging and pressure for converting the areas to other uses, such as for illegal mining, plantation and people community occupation of land. The areas of IUPHHK are fragmented into secondary forests which are not productive, scrub / bush land and alang –alang field.
With the application of silvicultural multisystem, production of timber and other forest products could be maintained and increased, and such production will be beneficial in terms of economy, ecology and environment. Besides that, application of silvicultural multisystem is accountable in terms of economy, ecology and environment as well as maintaining certainty of forest territory. In this case, it is hoped that business of forest management will be more prospective, so that this will expand employment opportunity and increasing income, and this business will perform active roles in re-vegetation activities to prevent global warming.
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